Electric generators are used for domestic, industrial and even commercial purpose. The basic function of an electric generator is to generate power from a non-renewable source. It is mainly used in places where there is no supply of natural electricity and natural resources are not sufficient. These generators work on the principle of the Conservation of Energy. The basic idea behind the working of this generator is that whenever you press a switch, it will automatically switch to the mode of using electricity from the battery. Let’s see in detail how it works:
For understand better of the functioning of an electric generator let’s see the schematic of an electric generator in simple terms: At the beginning, we have a large circular coil (dynamic field) which is placed at the centre. The first step in its functioning is to create a tension in this coil, which is caused by a dynamo. Once the dynamo is set in motion, it cuts the existing magnetic field lines due to which electricity is produced within the generator. This can be done either by continuous movement of the dynamo or by turning the dynamo.
Now let’s see how it works in practice: Whenever you start the electric generator, it creates a pull on the rod that leads to the rotor, which turns it. This creates a second flow of force which is again forced by the pulling of the rotor on the other end of the same rod. This continues until a point called the induction loop is reached, which is caused by the constant rotation of the dynamo. Here, electrical energy is converted into mechanical energy due to the mutual attraction and repulsion of magnets. This loop also absorbs the energy generated by the electric generator.
These basic facts about wind turbines are very important, because they help us to understand how they work. Now let’s take a look at the basic components of an electric generator and their working. The basic parts that constitute these mechanical machines are the spinning shaft, the housing for the dynamo, and the connecting rod.
The spindle is the rotating shaft that is used to turn the dynamo. The housing is a box or a complex structure made from lightweight materials like aluminium, copper, steel etc. which has the ability to hold the dynamo completely and provides a smooth flow of electricity. Connecting rod is the part that connects the turbine to the rest of the electric generators. It ensures that the turbine is perfectly aligned and that there is no gap between any two poles.
Next comes the induction coil. It is responsible for the conversion of electrical energy into mechanical energy. This ensures that there is a constant flow of electrical current even if there is no power produced directly from the dynamo. The voltage is also determined by this coil.
This is the main reason why it plays a vital role in increasing the national power supply. The working of such kind of generator is very simple. First of all, a mechanical energy (kinetic energy) is converted into electrical energy (kinetic energy) through a transmission line. Then the power transmitted through the transmission line will be converted into a voltage by the induction coil.
You must be wondering how Faraday cage works in the electric generator. It is mainly because of the Faraday Constant (FC). This is a scientific term that denotes the amount of force required to move an electrically charged conductor from a faraway point to a point near the electric source. Electric generators that work on this concept utilize magnets as the source of Faraday force. They use two magnets in case of two-arm or four-arm Faraday generators while electrostatic generators make use of the repulsive and attractive powers of Faraday fields.